Cloning aims to duplicate the DNA and biological processes of living things, such as plants, animals, and people. Despite various claims, no laboratory has yet been able to successfully clone human DNA.
Cloning humans has consequences that we are currently unable to predict. Human cloning worries may be similar to those raised by animal cloning, such as shorter life expectancy, an increase in biological defects, and ineffective output. Every cell’s nucleus in every clone contains the identical genetic material. A person created through such a technique is referred to as a clone of the original creature.
Given that identical or monozygotic twins are biological clones of one another, the term is naturally used to describe them. Since the sheep Dolly was successfully cloned in 1997, cloning as a startling scientific notion has demonstrated to the general public that it is a technology that can be done with considerable success.
Many fertility physicians around claim they have plans to clone a human child. In the latter part of last year, it appeared that human cloning had been successful for a period. The first human clone, named Eve, was born on December 27, 2002, according to Brigitte Boisselier, who announced the news at a press conference in Florida.
After a year, Boisselier, the head of a business founded by the Raelian sect, has not provided any evidence that the infant Eve even exists, let alone that she is a clone. According to NPR’s Joe Palca, after Boisselier’s statement in 2002, there have been developments in the realm of cloning.
So what are actually the Pros and Cons of Human Cloning?
The fact that rhesus macaque monkeys were successfully cloned almost two decades ago, in 1999, gave crucial credence to the idea that humans might one day be cloned. Cloning methods, on the other hand, have existed for a longer time. Cloning actually happens frequently in nature; some people even think it first occurred when life first developed on Earth.
Cloning appears to become a common practice soon given the environment’s rapid change and the rapid advancements in science and medicine. But is it a viable choice to support the recovery of the species’ population or only another audacious quest for immortality?
PROS of HUMAN CLONING
1. IT CAN HELP COUPLES WHO WANT TO HAVE CHILDREN
As many organisms on the planet approach endangerment and extinction, cloning appears to be a possible solution to restore populations. Especially now that the number of the people who do not want to reproduce increases. There are people who want kids but cannot reproduce due to different sexual preferences, so what happens is that they hire a surrogate mother. In human cloning, you can’t only reproduce, but you can also reproduce the same genetics more than once if you ever prefer having multiple children at the same time.
Normally, couples would want to have children that are biologically theirs. Interestingly, the genetic manipulations to be done could now be targeted at giving the children the genetic traits of both of their parents.
2. IT CAN HELP INCREASE FOOD PRODUCTION
Cloning also has the potential to boost agricultural output, notably that of livestock and fresh vegetables, which is a significant benefit. The elimination of the genetic “lottery” and random configurations in the genes during meiosis is assured by controlling the biological mechanisms underlying the existing features of interest.
The gene of interest and the organism containing it are duplicated more quickly during cloning than they are during natural development. The quantity of organisms created at any one time likewise rises as a result.
CONS of HUMAN CLONING
1. IT IS NOT SAFE AND ACCURATE
Clones will not have the same behavioral characteristics despite sharing the same genetic makeup. The similarity of their physical appearances is not guaranteed, except for that. It is significant to remember that these traits are not solely determined by genetic makeup.
In fact, there is a very high likelihood that a pair of clones would experience diverse habitats and dietary loads, imprinting unique alterations and contributions to each. In addition, the majority of the created clones have experienced decreased longevity and health issues. For instance, Dolly the sheep’s DNA was aberrant (her telomeres were short), indicating that part of her own cells still contained the “age” of the original organisms.
2. REGARDED AS UNETHICAL AND THE POSSIBILITY OF ABUSE IS MOST LIKELY
Concerns over cloning’s ethical implications are among the strongest objections. Critics claim that even the simple act of producing clones necessitates the exploitation of life, aside from the notion of controlling living things.
Before a successful clone of Dolly the sheep could be created, more than 277 attempts had been made. This only implies that multiple “failed” attempts would be necessary if people were to be cloned. As a result, detractors fervently contend that human cloning would be immoral until these issues are fully understood and settled.
3. THERE IS NO UNIQUENESS
Most cloning concerns stem from the lack of unique nuclear DNA in the offspring genome. However, as noted above, the idea that cloning merely lacks genetic uniqueness is no longer acceptable, as long as the procedure is performed safely. Again, it needs further investigation.
4. NOT YET FULLY-DEVELOPED
To date, many scientists would agree that the process of cloning has not yet been fully developed as a means of promoting conservation. In fact, some researchers are unaware of cloning because they do not recognize habitat destruction and hunting, which are the main reasons for their extinction.
Critics also argue that even if cloning is useful in desperate times, current techniques for achieving these goals are viewed as ineffective. Compared to cloning animals such as cattle, cloning endangered species is considered more difficult and could possibly take years (decades). There are many reasons why countless attempts to revive endangered or extinct species have failed, but they all presented one big problem.
In conclusion, the development of scientific research seems to outpace the real needs of the people who are the ultimate recipients of such advances. For this reason, it is urgent to determine whether such practical application is timely or indeed necessary for human survival.
To this day, many believe that cloning itself is unethical. In fact, many countries have banned all research leading to this and the actual cloning process.However, the cloning process is still pending further research.