Plant-Based Eating Pattern for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Treatment: Efficacy, Mechanisms, and Practical Considerations
Vegan diets have been shown to improve glycemic control in Asian cultures who already eat a plant-based diet. In a 12-week trial in Korea, 93 type 2 diabetes volunteers were randomly randomised to either a vegan diet (N = 46) or a conventional diet (N = 47) suggested by the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) 2011. Patients with diabetes benefit from plant-based eating habits because they improve insulin sensitivity and help them lose weight. Insulin resistance is induced by fat accumulation in muscle and liver cells, which occurs several years before type 2 diabetes is diagnosed. Dietary modifications have a large impact on this lipid buildup. In skeletal muscle, high-fat diets reduce the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation . In addition, high-fat diets appear to disturb the natural intestinal barrier to bacterial endotoxins, which may affect glucose oxidation mechanisms once they enter the bloodstream.
Weight loss is crucial for improving insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, as well as lowering cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. In patients with type 2 diabetes, being overweight is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause death. Individuals who follow vegetarian, particularly vegan, diets
have lower mean BMIs than nonvegetarians. According to population research, increasing meat consumption leads to an increase in body weight.